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Fundamental Treaty Principles


The Royal Proclamation of 1763 recognized First Nations title, sovereignty, and established the treaty-making process. The Royal Proclamation also established the relationship of mutuality between two nations and the principle of consent between First Nations Peoples and the Imperial Crown


Pursuant to the Royal Proclamation of 1763, treaties were entered into between sovereign and independent nations with their own preexisting laws, principles, and forms of government. The Treaty First Nations agreed to live in peaceful coexistence with other peoples; with respect to and without interference in one another's laws, governments, and ways of life.


At no time did Treaty First Nations relinquish their right to nationhood, their Inherent Right to determine their own destinies, nor did they allow any foreign government to govern them.


The spirit and intent of the treaties must be respected and honoured as made sacred by traditional Indian laws and ceremonies and the involvement of the Crown.


Treaties are not static nor can they be unilaterally defined. They evolve and will continue to evolve for " long as the sun shines, the rivers flow, and the grass grows..."


The International stature of treaties are recognized, respected, and upheld.


Pursuant to the Royal Proclamation of 1763, treaties established a bilateral nation-to-nation relationship between Treaty First Nations and the Imperial Crown.


In accordance with the bilateral process, as recognized and confirmed by Treaty, the Crown in right of Canada is under a continuing obligation to deal directly with the First Nations signatories to Treaty. Therefore, no discussions on treaties can proceed which deviate from or diminish the bilateral nation-to-nation relationship.


Since the principle of consent is entrenched in the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the Government of Canada is not entitled to make unilateral decisions with respect to Treaty issues.


As each First Nation is its own governing entity, respect and recognition must be given to the political
structure and authority of each First Nation government.

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